Urinary Retention (Male)

Urinary retention is when you have trouble urinating. In some cases you may not be able to pass any urine at all. This condition occurs even though your bladder is full.

Causes

The most common cause of urinary retention in men is the bladder outlet being blocked. This can be due to an enlarged prostate gland or a bladder infection. Some medicines can also cause this problem. This condition is more likely to occur as men get older.

Symptoms

Common symptoms include:

  • Pain (not everyone has this)

  • Frequent urination

  • Feeling that the bladder is still full after urinating

  • Not being able to control the release of urine (incontinence)

  • Swollen belly (abdomen)

Treatment

This condition is treated by putting a tube (catheter) into the bladder to drain the urine. This gives relief right away. The catheter may need to stay in place for a few days. The catheter has a balloon on the tip. This is inflated after the catheter is put in the bladder. This prevents the catheter from falling out.

Cross section of male pelvis showing foley catheter inserted into bladder.

Home care

  • If you were given antibiotics, take them until they are used up, or your healthcare provider tells you to stop. It's important to finish the antibiotics even if you feel better. This is to make sure your infection has cleared.

  • If a catheter was left in place, it's important to keep bacteria from getting into the collection bag. Don't disconnect the catheter from the collection bag.

  • Use a leg band to secure the drainage tube, so it does not pull on the catheter. Drain the collection bag when it becomes full using the drain spout at the bottom of the bag.

  • Don't pull on or try to take out your catheter. This will harm your urethra. The catheter must be removed by a healthcare provider.

Follow-up care

Follow up with your healthcare provider, or as advised.

If a catheter was left in place, it can often be removed in 3 to 7 days. Some conditions require the catheter to stay in longer. Your provider will tell you when to come back to have the catheter removed.

When to get medical advice

Call your healthcare provider right away if any of these occur:

  • Fever of 100.4ºF (38ºC) or higher, or as directed by your provider

  • Bladder or lower-belly pain or fullness

  • Belly swelling, nausea, vomiting, or back pain

  • Blood or urine leakage around the catheter

  • Bloody urine coming from the catheter (if a new symptom)

  • Weakness, dizziness, or fainting

  • Confusion or change in normal level of alertness

  • If a catheter was left in place, see your provider if the catheter:

    • Falls out

    • Stops draining for 6 hours

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