Your child is having breath-holding spells. During a breath-holding spell, your child holds his or her breath for a while before briefly losing consciousness. Breath-holding spells often happen after a trauma or an emotional upset. They occur most often in children under age 3. Breath-holding spells can be scary for both parents and children. But they are not usually a serious problem. And they often stop by the time your child is 5 or 6 years old.
The exact cause of breath-holding spells is not known, but they may run in families. Breath-holding spells are involuntary. This means that your child is not holding his or her breath on purpose. They are often “triggered” by an upsetting event. Common triggers include:
Injury (such as a head bonk, scrape, or fall)
Strong emotions (such as stress, anger, or pain)
Common symptoms of breath-holding spells include:
Not breathing (holding breath)
Turning blue or pale
Stiffness or limpness throughout your child’s body during the spell
Jerky movements of the arms or legs
Loss of consciousness
Breath-holding spells are usually easy to diagnose. To do this, the health care provider will examine your child and ask about your child’s medical history, health, and symptoms. Certain tests may be done to rule out problems.
Even though breath-holding spells can be scary, they are rarely dangerous. To prevent them, you might be tempted to shield your child from too much excitement or strong emotion. But it’s important to treat your child normally and set appropriate boundaries. During a breath-holding spell:
Comfort your child by cradling him or her in your arms or on your lap.
If the spell lasts, lay your child down on his or her back. This helps blood flow to the head more easily.
Don’t perform CPR (including mouth-to-mouth breathing).
If your child was eating prior to a spell, don’t try to use your finger to sweep food out of his or her mouth. But you can pat your child on the back, tip your child forward, or lay your child on his or her side to prevent choking.
The good news is that breath-holding spells usually go away after age 5. They won’t cause brain damage or other problems. And they don’t make your child more likely to have health problems later in life.
Faints (passes out) during a breath-holding spell if fainting has not happened before
Has a seizure (shaking or jerking) during a breath-holding spell