Cold sores (also called fever blisters) are a common problem in children. They usually appear outside the mouth. Cold sores often begin as 1 or a cluster of blisters, which then crust or scab over. They can spread through direct contact. If your child has cold sores, it’s important to teach him or her how to keep from spreading them to others.
Cold sores are caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). There are 2 types of this virus. The type that usually affects the mouth is called HSV1. It’s very common in children.
HSV stays in the body once your child has it. Cold sores can appear randomly or when something triggers them. Triggers can include:
An injury to the mouth
Fever or illness
Lack of sleep
Friction or rubbing mouth
Symptoms can include tingling, burning, or itching felt in the affected area a few days before the appearance of sores. The sores themselves can cause burning, stinging, or itching. The sores are often blister-like and red at first. They then dry out and scab over. Cold sores may last 10 to 14 days.
Cold sores can be spread in the following ways:
Direct contact with the sores (like through touching or kissing)
Contact with items (like cups, toothbrushes, or towels) that have been contaminated by an infected person
Cold sores are diagnosed by how they look. To get more information, the health care provider will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. The health care provider will also examine your child. You will be told if any tests are needed. A skin biopsy or viral culture can also be performed.
Cold sores generally go away within 10 to 14 days with no treatment.
If your child has a sensation that a cold sore may be coming on, applying an ice cube or pack for 20 minutes may prevent it.
Ask the health care provider if there are any prescriptions or over-the-counter (OTC) medicines that will help your child feel better, faster. Topical or oral antiviral medicine can be prescribed if your child has recurrent cold sores. To be effective, the medicine needs to be taken as soon as symptoms appear.
You can do the following at home to relieve cold sore symptoms:
Make sure your child gets plenty of rest.
Give your child OTC medicines, like ibuprofen or acetaminophen, to treat pain and fever. Do not give ibuprofen to an infant less than 6 months of age, or to a child who is dehydrated or constantly vomiting. Do not give aspirin to a child with a fever. This can put your child at risk of a serious illness called Reye syndrome.
Cold liquids, ice, or frozen juice bars may help soothe mouth pain. Avoid giving your child spicy or acidic foods.
Use the following treatments only if your child is over the age of 4:
Apply an OTC numbing gel to mouth sores to relieve pain. The gel can cause a brief sting when applied.
Have your child rinse his or her mouth with saltwater or with baking soda and warm water, then spit. The mouth rinse should not be swallowed.
Contact the health care provider if your child has any of the following:
A cold sore that doesn’t go away within 14 days
A cold sore that grows larger or appears near the eyes
Increased mouth pain
Signs of infection around a cold sore (pus, drainage, or swelling)
Signs of dehydration (very dark or little urine, excessive thirst, dry mouth, dizziness)
Your child is 3 months old or younger and has a fever of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher. Get medical care right away. Fever in a young baby can be a sign of a dangerous infection.
Your child is of any age and has repeated fevers above 104°F (40°C).
Your child is younger than 2 years of age and a fever of 100.4°F (38°C) continues for more than 1 day.
Your child is 2 years old or older and a fever of 100.4°F (38°C) continues for more than 3 days.
Your baby is fussy or cries and cannot be soothed.
Your child has had a seizure caused by the fever
Follow these steps to keep your child from passing cold sores on to others:
Teach your child to wash his or her hands with soap and warm water often. Handwashing is especially important before eating or handling food, after using the bathroom, and after touching the sores.
Do not allow your child to share cups, utensils, napkins, or personal items, like towels and toothbrushes with others.
Keep your child from kissing others when he or she has a cold sore.
Keep your child’s hands out of his or her mouth. Encourage your child to not touch his or her face with his or her hands.
Wash any toys or items that your child places in his or her mouth.
Use lip balm with sun protection