Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral infection in children. It can cause mouth sores and a painless rash on the hands, feet, or buttocks. HFMD can be easily spread from one person to another. It occurs more often in children under 10 years old, but anyone can get it. HFMD is often mistaken for strep throat because the symptoms of both conditions are similar. Though HFMD can cause some discomfort, it’s not a serious problem. Most cases can easily be managed and treated at home.
HFMD is usually caused by the coxsackievirus. It can also be caused by other viruses in the same family as coxsackievirus. Your child may have caught HFMD in one of the following ways:
Breathing infected air (the virus can enter the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks).
Contact with items contaminated with stool from an infected person. Contamination can occur when an infected person doesn’t wash his or her hands after having a bowel movement or changing a diaper.
Contact with fluid from the blisters that are part of the rash (this mode of transmission is rare).
Symptoms usually appear 24 to 72 hours after exposure. They include:
Rash (small, red bumps or blisters on the hands, feet, or buttocks)
Mouth sores that often occur on the gums, tongue, inside the cheeks, and in the back of the throat (mouth sores may not occur in some children)
A nonspecific rash over the rest of the body
Loss of appetite
Pain when swallowing; drooling
HFMD is diagnosed by how the rash and mouth sores look. To get more information, the health care provider will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. He or she will also examine your child. You will be told if any tests are needed to rule out other infections.
There is no specific treatment for HFMD, but there are things you can do at home to help relieve some symptoms. The illness generally lasts about 7 to 10 days. Your child is no longer contagious 24 hours after the fever is gone.
Unless your doctor has prescribed another medicine for mouth pain, give your child ibuprofen or acetaminophen to treat pain or discomfort. Please consult your child's doctor for dosing instructions and when to give the medicine (schedule). Do not give ibuprofen to an infant 6 months of age or younger. Do not give aspirin to a child with a fever. This can put your child at risk of a serious illness called Reye’s syndrome.
Liquid antacid can be used 4 times per day to coat the mouth sores for pain relief. Talk with your child's doctor about how much and when to give the medicine to your child..
Children over age 4 can use 1 teaspoon (5ml) as a mouth rinse after means.
For children under age 4, a parent can place 1/2 teaspoon (2.5ml) in the front of the mouth after meals. Avoid regular mouth rinses because they may sting.
Follow a soft diet with plenty of fluids to prevent dehydratioin. If your child doesn't want to eat solid foods, it's OK for a few days, as long as he or she drinks plenty of fluid.
Cool drinks and frozen treats (such as sherbet) are soothing and easier to take.
Avoid citrus juices (such as orange juice or lemonade) and salty or spicy foods. These may cause more pain in the mouth sores.
Call the doctor if your otherwise healthy child has any of the following:
A mouth sore that doesn’t go away within 14 days
Increased mouth pain
Lack of energy
Signs of infection around the rash or mouth sores (pus, drainage, or swelling)
Signs of dehydration (very dark or little urine, excessive thirst, dry mouth, dizziness)
In a child 3 to 36 months, a rectal temperature of 102°F (39.0°C) or higher
In a child of any age who has a repeated temperature of 104°F (40.0°C) or higher
A fever that lasts more than 24-hours in a child under 2 years old, or for 3 days in a child 2 years or older
Follow these steps to keep your child from passing HFMD on to others:
Teach your child to wash his or her hands with soap and warm water often. Handwashing is especially important before eating or handling food, after using the bathroom, and after touching the rash. A child is very contagious during the first week of the illness and he or she can still be contagious for days to weeks after the illness resolves.
Your child should remain at home while he or she is sick with hand, foot, and mouth disease. Discuss with your child's health care provider how long you should keep your child from attending school or daycare or playing with others.
Do not allow your child to share cups, utensils, napkins, or personal items such as towels and toothbrushes with others.