Diabetes care in preteens and teens is not always easy. It might seem like there is a lot for you to remember. But you don’t have to do it alone! You’ll work with your child’s healthcare provider, nurse, a diabetes educator, or others to develop a diabetes management plan. You should have a diabetes management plan that instructs you on the overall treatment plan for your child's diabetes. It should include:
A detailed list of medicines, instructions, and when to use each
How to check blood sugars
Symptoms of and treating low blood sugar levels
Symptoms of and treating high blood sugar levels
Carbohydrates (carb) counting
Instructions on physical activity and sports
What to do if your child gets sick with a cold, or the flu, for example
What to do in an emergency
Also make sure you discuss day care and school with your healthcare provider.
At this age, keeping your preteen or teen’s blood sugar in range may not be easy. This is due to the hormones that cause puberty. So, don’t worry that your child’s blood sugar isn’t perfect. Encourage your child to handle some of the responsibility for blood sugar checks as he or she gets older. Your child must be prepared to check blood sugar regularly as directed by the healthcare provider. The best sites to do checks are the sides of the fingertips. Even if your child does his or her own checks, you MUST monitor your child’s results. This is the only way to make sure that his or her blood sugar is staying in a healthy range. You can act as your child’s coach. To do this:
Sit down with your child at least once a week to talk about his or her blood sugar numbers.
Download meter numbers to a computer. Or review the numbers in his or her log book.
Decide together if your child’s blood sugar is staying on target.
You may sometimes need to check your child's urine for ketones. Ketones are chemicals that are produced when fat, instead of glucose, is burned for energy (ketosis). Follow instructions that come with the strips and from his or her healthcare provider, nurse, or diabetes educator. If ketones are present, always call your child's healthcare provider right away. Some people also use home glucose monitors to check the blood for ketosis. Ask your child's healthcare provider, nurse, or a diabetes educator for more information.
It’s very important that your child’s blood sugar not get too low. So you and your child must manage his or her blood sugar as much as possible without letting it get too low. Over time, you and your child will learn what is normal for him or her. This will help you both recognize symptoms of low blood sugar. You can help support your child by paying close attention to how he or she is acting. Your child may have low blood sugar if he or she is:
Lethargic (sleepy or drowsy)
Staring into space or glassy-eyed
Confused or having difficulty concentrating
Complaining of visual problems, headaches, or nightmares
If you suspect your child has low blood sugar, check it right away. If the result is less than 70 mg/dL, or another number your child's healthcare provider has advised, take action. Treat your child right away with a fast-acting sugar as you were told by the healthcare provider. If your child is confused, unresponsive, unconscious, or having convulsions (seizures), he or she may have severely low blood sugar. Treat your child right away with injectable glucagon. This is a substance that raises your child’s blood sugar very quickly. Always have an emergency kit with a shot of glucagon with you. (Your child’s healthcare team will teach you how to give a glucagon shot.)
Call your child’s healthcare provider right away or call 911 or go to the hospital emergency department if your child has any of the following symptoms. Your child:
Is hard to wake or unresponsive
Passes out (faints)
Has blood sugar below the “danger number” given to you by the healthcare provider
Has a seizure
The amount of insulin your child needs and how often it’s needed may vary. This includes both slow-acting and fast-acting insulin. Basal or background insulin is always needed whether your child is eating or not. Meal-based insulin is adjusted based on how much your child eats. Your child might show an interest in doing his or her own insulin shots. But all shots MUST still be supervised, at home and at school. Give insulin in the fatty parts of the:
Backs of the upper arms
Sides of the thighs
Belly (avoid the area within 2 inches of the belly button)
Let your child decide when he or she is ready for more responsibility. You can support your child’s efforts to take over his or her diabetes care. But be prepared to manage your child’s shots when needed, such as when your child is sick.
It’s not unusual for children to be upset about having insulin shots at first. But most children adjust quickly to diabetes care. How quickly your child adjusts may depend on how comfortable you are giving shots. At first, you may have your own concerns. If you are nervous, here are some things that can help:
You may want to practice on yourself first. Ask your child’s healthcare provider about giving yourself an injection of sterile saline to learn how a shot feels.
If you are afraid of needles, using an injection device may help ease your fear.
Treat shots as a normal routine. This helps speed up the adjustment process for you and your child.
If you are still having trouble, discuss your concerns with your child’s healthcare team. They can help you adjust.
Most children don’t want to be seen as being different from their peers. This can get in the way of diabetes care, especially when your child is away from home. Encourage your child to learn more about diabetes and to take on more responsibility when ready. But remember that things may not always go smoothly. This doesn’t mean that your child has failed at diabetes management. Just know that your child may need more support. If your child is having a hard time adjusting to life with diabetes, counseling may help. Talk to your child’s healthcare provider about this.
Your child will need to learn about foods that affect blood sugar the most. Keep these things in mind:
Your child’s healthcare provider, nurse, or a diabetes educator will teach you and your child about carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are foods that give your child the energy he or she needs to grow. But they also raise blood sugar higher and faster than other kinds of foods. You and your child will learn about “carb counting.” This is a technique to help you figure out how many carbohydrates your child eats each day. Carb counting helps you decide how much insulin your child needs.
If needed, you can write the carb count of each food on a piece of paper. Then put the paper into your child’s lunch bag when he or she goes to school. This helps both your child and the teachers know how many carbohydrates are being eaten. It will also help your child learn to connect carbohydrates with his or her insulin dose.
Remember that kids will be kids! While it may be necessary to limit eating at times to control glucose, no foods should be "off limits." Children will sneak treats, especially those that they love. So, work the foods your child likes to eat into his or her meal plan. Adjust insulin dosages as needed. You and your child will learn how to adjust insulin based on what your child eats.
At this age, food and eating may be a sensitive issue for your child. So be aware of problems that can affect blood sugar management. One such problem is called diabulemia. People with diabulemia skip shots or take too little insulin. They do this to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight. Diabulemia is a dangerous condition. Watch for any signs that your child is having trouble following his or her meal plan. If needed, contact your child’s healthcare provider for advice and assistance.
Like food and insulin, physical activity plays a big role in managing your child’s blood sugar. Being active helps reduce the amount of glucose in your child’s blood. But too much activity can cause his or her blood sugar to get too low. That’s why it’s important for your child to check his or her blood sugar closely during activity. Talk to the healthcare provider to learn how your child should balance activity with food and insulin.
Your child should receive proper diabetes care and support at school:
To make sure your child’s needs are met, write down his or her diabetes care plan. This is also known as a 504 plan. At the beginning of the school year, meet with your child’s teachers, and other school staff. Explain your child’s treatment plan.
Talk with the staff about your child's need to check blood sugar levels and to have food or drinks as needed.
Someone at the school will need to give or supervise your child’s insulin shots. It may be the school nurse, if one is present.
Your child will need to carry a kit for diabetes supplies. This includes testing supplies, medicines, and fast-acting sugar for emergencies.
Inform the school that your child can still be active and participate in all school activities.
Your child’s healthcare provider can teach your child how to talk about diabetes with classmates.
It’s important to let your teen know that driving carries extra responsibility. Your child must check his or her blood sugar each time before driving. This is because low blood sugar can affect your child’s ability to drive. And he or she must keep blood sugar supplies close at hand (not in the trunk or back seat). Your teen must pull over immediately and eat carbohydrates if he or she feels any symptoms of hypoglycemia (low blood glucose). Work with your child’s healthcare provider to help your child learn to stay safe when driving.
Sex is a sensitive subject for many families. But when your child has diabetes, there are extra topics to discuss. Sex, like any physical activity, can cause blood sugar to rise or fall quickly. And getting pregnant can be very risky for a teen with diabetes. This is because high blood sugar can be dangerous for both the teen and the fetus. So your child needs to be aware of the risks of unplanned pregnancy. If sex is hard for you to talk about at home, ask your child’s healthcare provider for help.
Smoking, drinking alcohol, and using drugs are especially unsafe for children with diabetes. Ask your child’s healthcare provider to talk to your child about the importance of avoiding these substances. You should also stay alert for signs that your child is smoking, drinking, or using drugs. This means staying involved in his or her life (see Staying Involved). Talk with your child's healthcare provider if you think your child is smoking, drinking, or using drugs.
Managing diabetes can be a lot of work. You or your child may sometimes feel worn out or overwhelmed. This can lead to burnout. Your child might slip up more often on blood sugar management. If you or your child are feeling burned out, ask for help!
Another result of burnout can be depression. Depression may be an issue as your child realizes that diabetes isn't going away. Contact your child’s healthcare provider right away if you notice that your child:
Loses interest in activities
Withdraws from family and friends
Shows signs of feeling helpless or hopeless
Sleeps too much or too little
Has trouble concentrating
Shows signs of fatigue, nervousness, or anxiety
The best way to support your child is to remain involved in his or her life. Preteens and teens do best with diabetes care when parents help them every step of the way. Work with your child to develop a management plan that suits the family. Help your child follow the plan by acting as his or her coach. The plan will need adjustment sometimes. So stay in close contact with your child’s healthcare provider. And don’t hesitate to ask for advice when you need it.
For more information about diabetes, visit these websites:
American Diabetes Association www.diabetes.org
Children with Diabetes www.childrenwithdiabetes.org
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation www.jdrf.org
American Association of Diabetes Educators www.aadenet.org
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists www.aace.com
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases www.diabetes.niddk.nih.gov