Acute bronchitis occurs when the bronchial tubes (airways in the lungs) become infected or inflamed. Normally, air moves in and out of these airways easily. When a child has acute bronchitis, the tubes become narrowed, making it harder for air to flow in and out of the lungs. This causes shortness of breath and coughing or wheezing. Acute bronchitis usually goes away without treatment in a few days to a few weeks.
A cold or the flu (most cases)
A bacterial infection
Exposure to irritants such as tobacco smoke, smog, and household cleaners
Other respiratory problems, such as asthma
Acute bronchitis usually comes on suddenly, often after a cold or flu. Symptoms include:
Noisy breathing or wheezing
Mucus buildup in the airways and lungs
Slight fever and chills
Chest retractions (sucking in of the skin around the ribs when your child inhales, a sign of difficult breathing)
Coughing up yellowish-gray or green mucus
Your child’s health history, a physical exam, and certain tests can help your child’s health care provider diagnose bronchitis. During the exam, the provider will listen to your child’s chest and check his or her ears, nose, and throat. One or more of these tests may also be done:
Sputum culture: Fluid from your child’s lungs may be checked for bacteria. Not routinely done because it is difficult to obtain in children.
Chest X-ray: Your child may have a chest X-ray to look for pneumonia (bacterial infection in the lungs).
Other tests: Your child’s health care provider may order other tests to check for underlying problems such as allergies or asthma. Your child may be referred to a specialist for these tests.
The best treatment for acute bronchitis is to ease symptoms. To help your child feel more comfortable:
Give your child plenty of fluids, such as water, juice, or warm soup. Fluids loosen mucus, helping your child breathe more easily. They also prevent dehydration.
Make sure your child gets plenty of rest.
Keep your house smoke-free.
Use “children’s strength” medication for symptoms. Discuss all over-the-counter products with the doctor before using them, including cough syrup. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not recommend using cough/cold medications in children under 4 years of age. Use caution when giving these medications to kids between the ages of 4 and 11 years.
Never give a child under age 18 aspirin to treat a fever unless your health care provider says it’s OK. (It could cause a rare but serious condition called Reye’s syndrome.)
Never give ibuprofen to an infant 6 months of age or younger.
Your child’s health care provider will prescribe antibiotics only if your child has a bacterial infection. In that case:
Make sure your child takes ALL the medication, even if he or she feels better. Otherwise, the infection may come back.
Be sure that your child takes the medication as directed. For example, some antibiotics should be taken with food.
Ask your child’s health care provider or pharmacist what side effects the medication may cause and what to do about them.
To help your child stay healthy:
Teach children to wash their hands often. It’s the best way to prevent most infections.
Don’t let anyone smoke in your house or around your child.
Consider having children ages 6 months to 18 years get a flu shot each year. The shot is recommended for young children because they are especially at risk of flu, which can lead to bronchitis.
Use warm water and plenty of soap. Work up a good lather.
Clean the whole hand, under the nails, between fingers, and up the wrists.
Wash for at least 10 to 15 seconds (as long as it takes to say the ABCs or sing “Happy Birthday”). Don’t just wipe—scrub well.
Rinse well. Let the water run down the fingers, not up the wrists.
In a public restroom, use a paper towel to turn off the faucet and open the door.
Call the health care provider if your otherwise healthy child has:
Symptoms that get worse, or new symptoms
Retractions (skin sucking in around the ribs when your child inhales)
Symptoms that don’t start to improve within a week, or within 3 days of taking antibiotics
Recurring bronchial infections
In an infant under 3 months old, a rectal temperature of 100.4°F (38.0°C) or higher
In a child of any age who has a repeated temperature of 103°F (39.4°C) or higher
A fever that lasts more than 24-hours in a child under 2 years old, or for 3 days in a child 2 years or older
A seizure caused by the fever