The path to pregnancy is not always smooth. Age, hormones, and the health of your reproductive system can all become obstacles to pregnancy. Keep in mind that it’s common for both partners to have factors that decrease fertility. And sometimes the cause is unknown. So try to avoid feeling guilty or placing blame if you are having trouble getting pregnant. Instead, share the challenge and support each other.
Age is a major factor in female fertility. As a woman ages, the quantity and quality of her eggs decline. This becomes apparent by around age 35 and speeds up after the age of 40. A man makes sperm throughout his life. So age is not as much of a factor. However, many problems can affect sperm regardless of a man’s age.
Health or lifestyle factors can lower the number of sperm (sperm count) in a man’s ejaculate. Even if the sperm count is normal, a man may produce sperm that doesn't function properly. These may not be able to make the journey through the woman’s reproductive tract. Or, they may not be able to fertilize an egg.
Ovulation problems are a common cause of infertility. In some cases, an imbalance of hormones can prevent eggs from maturing. Hormone problems can also prevent eggs from being released by the ovaries.
A blockage in the male or female reproductive tract can prevent fertilization. Or, sperm may be unable to swim through the cervical mucus. And even if sperm do reach an egg, they may not be able to penetrate the egg’s covering.
After fertilization, an embryo may not be able to implant in the uterus. This is often due to problems with the lining of the uterus. It can also result from problems with the size or shape of the uterus.