Jaundice is a yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes. In newborns, it’s usually caused by the breakdown of red blood cells. This releases a yellow substance called bilirubin, which is processed by the baby’s body. Bilirubin then leaves the body through the baby’s urine and stool. Bilirubin makes the skin and the whites of the eyes look jaundiced (yellow). This process is normal after birth. In fact, about half of all newborns have jaundice in their first week of life. It’s usually temporary and doesn’t require treatment. But in some cases, more severe or pronounced jaundice is a sign that the baby’s body can’t process bilirubin quickly enough. If bilirubin levels become too high, they can be dangerous to a baby's developing brain and nervous system. In these cases, phototherapy is needed. This treatment helps speed up the breakdown of bilirubin.
The baby is placed under a special light. This breaks down bilirubin in the skin. During treatment, the baby’s eyes are covered for protection and comfort. The rest of the body is naked, except for a diaper. This way the light reaches most of the skin. The baby’s position will be changed often to make sure all of the skin is exposed to the light.
Phototherapy is usually needed for a few days to a week. You will probably be asked to limit the amount of time the baby spends out from under the lights. The baby can usually be held for feedings if the level of jaundice is not too high. Fluids may be given through an IV (intravenous) line. These cause the baby to urinate more often, so the bilirubin leaves the body more efficiently.