Anemia is a condition in which the red blood cell count is too low. In pregnant women, this is often caused by not having enough iron in the blood. Anemia is common in pregnancy and very easy to treat.
While pregnant, your body uses iron to make red blood cells for you and your fetus. These cells bring oxygen to your fetus and to the rest of your body. Not having enough red blood cells can cause your baby to be born too small. But this is rare, as it’s easy for you to get enough iron.
The only way to know whether you have anemia is to have a simple test called a CBC (complete blood count). This is a routine test that will be done at one of your first prenatal visits. This test may be done again, at about week 26 to week 28.
If you have anemia due to low iron content, follow the advice of your healthcare provider. Eating foods high in iron and taking supplements can help you get the iron you need.
Eat foods that are high in iron such as:
Red meat (limit organ meats such as liver)
Seafood (be sure it’s fully cooked), and don't eat fish that are high in mercury, such as swordfish, tilefish, king mackerel, and shark
Green, leafy vegetables
Whole grains and iron-fortified cereals
Dried fruits and nuts
In most cases, a prenatal vitamin can provide enough iron. But if you need more, your healthcare provider may prescribe an iron supplement. Swallow iron pills with a glass of orange or cranberry juice. The vitamin C in these fruit juices can help your body absorb iron. But don’t take your iron pills with juices that have calcium added to them. They can keep your body from absorbing the iron.
Iron supplements may have certain side effects. They may cause your stools to turn black, make you feel sick to your stomach or constipated. Here are some tips that may help you limit side effects:
Start slowly. Take one pill a day for a few days. Then work up to your prescribed dose over time.
Take your pills with meals, and avoid them at bedtime.
Increase the fiber in your diet. Eat more whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.
Do mild exercise each day.
If recommended by your healthcare provider, take a stool softener.