Craniotomy is a surgical opening made in the skull for treatment of several types of problems in the brain. Special tools are used to remove a piece of the skull and allow access to the brain for surgical treatment.
Certain problems keep the brain from working right. Access to the brain is needed to correct these problems. A craniotomy provides this access. The problems discussed below are the most common reasons for performing a craniotomy.
A brain injury can result from a direct blow to the head or even whiplash. It can cause tearing, bleeding, and swelling of the brain. The treatment goal is to stop any bleeding and reduce pressure inside the skull. Blood and damaged tissue may be removed.
An aneurysm is a balloon-like defect in an artery wall. Over time, the defect bulges and weakens. This allows blood to leak out. The leaking blood can damage the brain. The treatment goal is to control damage and prevent future bleeding.
A tumor is a mass of abnormal cells. A primary brain tumor starts in the brain. A metastatic brain tumor grows from cells that spread to the brain from some other site in the body. The goal is to remove as much of the tumor as possible. Depending on the tumor, other treatments may also be needed.
An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal tangle of blood vessels. An AVM prevents normal blood flow through part of the brain. It also increases the risk of bleeding into brain tissue. The treatment goal is to stop blood flow within the AVM and channel it along the normal route.
An abscess in the brain is an infection that forms a mass. A brain abcess is sometimes treated with surgery in addition to antibiotics.