A bursa is a fluid-filled sac that helps cushion the muscles, tendons, and bones around a joint. When a bursa becomes inflamed, it’s called bursitis. Common symptoms of bursitis include pain, tenderness, and swelling that limits movement of the joint.
Bursitis is most often caused by overuse of a joint. The repeated movements irritate the bursa and may cause it to swell. When that happens, other surrounding tissues may become inflamed or have less space to move. Bursitis is most common in large joints such as the knee, shoulder, and hip.
To help reduce pain and swelling, your healthcare provider may recommend one or more of the following:
Rest gives the bursa time to heal. This means limiting activities that put stress on the joint.
Anti-inflammatory medications help reduce painful swelling. In some cases, this can include injections of cortisone or other steroid medicines into the bursa.
Splints and support bandages improve your comfort and allow the bursa to heal.
Physical therapy may be used to increase flexibility and strengthen muscles that support the joint.
Aspiration removes extra fluid from the bursa using a needle. This can help your healthcare provider find out what is causing your bursitis. For example, it might be an infection or overuse.
Surgery can be used to remove an inflamed or infected bursa. This is rarely needed.