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When Your Child Has Cold Sores

Closeup of mouth showing blister on lower lip. Cold sores (also called fever blisters) are a common problem in children. They usually appear outside the mouth. Cold sores often begin as one or a cluster of blisters, which then crust or scab over. They can spread through direct contact. If your child has cold sores, it’s important to teach him or her how to keep from spreading them to others.

What Causes Cold Sores?

  • Cold sores are caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). There are two types of this virus. The type that usually affects the mouth is called HSV1. It’s very common in children.

  • HSV stays in the body once your child has it. Cold sores can appear randomly or when something triggers them. Triggers can include:

    • An injury to the mouth

    • Fever or illness

    • Stress

    • Sun exposure

    • Lack of sleep

What Are the Symptoms of Cold Sores?

Symptoms can include tingling, burning, or itching felt in the affected area a few days before the appearance of sores. The sores themselves can cause burning, stinging, or itching. The sores are often blister-like and red at first. They then dry out and scab over.

How Are Cold Sores Spread?

Cold sores can be spread in the following ways:

  • Direct contact with the sores (such as through touching or kissing)

  • Contact with items (such as cups, toothbrushes, or towels) that have been contaminated by an infected person

How Are Cold Sores Diagnosed?

Cold sores are diagnosed by how they look. To get more information, the doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. The doctor will also examine your child. You will be told if any tests are needed.

How Are Cold Sores Treated?

  • Cold sores generally go away within 10 to 14 days with no treatment.

  • Ask the doctor if there are any prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) medications that will help your child feel better, faster. Antiviral medication can be prescribed if your child has recurrent cold sores. To be effective, the medication needs to be taken as soon as symptoms appear.

  • You can do the following at home to relieve cold sore symptoms:

    • Make sure your child gets plenty of rest. Girl taking pill and holding glass of water. Woman standing next to her is stirring salt into another glass of water.

    • Give your child OTC medications, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, to treat pain and fever. Do not give ibuprofen to an infant less than 6 months of age, or to a child who is dehydrated or constantly vomiting. Do not give aspirin to a child with a fever. This can put your child at risk of a serious illness called Reye’s syndrome.

    • Cold liquids, ice, or frozen juice bars may help soothe mouth pain. Avoid giving your child spicy or acidic foods.

  • Use the following treatments only if your child is over the age of 4:

    • Apply an OTC numbing gel to mouth sores to relieve pain. The gel can cause a brief sting when applied.

    • Have your child rinse his or her mouth with saltwater or with baking soda and warm water, then spit. The mouth rinse should not be swallowed.

Call the doctor if your child has any of the following:

  • A cold sore that doesn’t go away within 14 days

  • A cold sore that grows larger or appears near the eyes

  • Increased mouth pain

  • Trouble swallowing

  • Signs of infection around a cold sore (pus, drainage, or swelling)

  • Signs of dehydration (very dark or little urine, excessive thirst, dry mouth, dizziness)

  • In an infant under 3 months old, a rectal temperature of 100.4°F (38.0°C) or higher

  • In a child 3 to 36 months, a rectal temperature of 102°F (39.0°C) or higher

  • In a child of any age who has a temperature of 103°F (39.4°C) or higher

  • A fever that lasts more than 24-hours in a child under 2 years old, or for 3 days in a child 2 years or older

  • Your child has had a seizure caused by the fever

How Is the Spread of Cold Sores Prevented?

Follow these steps to keep your child from passing cold sores on to others:

  • Teach your child to wash his or her hands with soap and warm water often. Handwashing is especially important before eating or handling food, after using the bathroom, and after touching the sores.

  • Do not allow your child to share cups, utensils, napkins, or personal items such as towels and toothbrushes with others.

  • Keep your child from kissing others when he or she has a cold sore.

  • Keep your child’s hands out of his or her mouth.

  • Wash any toys or items that your child places in his or her mouth.


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