Skin Color Changes in the Newborn
In newborns, skin color changes are often due to something happening inside the body. Some color changes are normal. Others are signs of problems. The changes described below can happen to any newborn. But skin color changes may be more obvious in babies born early, or prematurely, who have thinner skin than full-term babies.
With acrocyanosis, the baby’s hands and feet are blue. This is normal right after birth. In fact, most newborns have some acrocyanosis for their first few hours of life. It happens because blood and oxygen aren’t circulating properly to the hands and feet yet. The problem goes away as the blood vessels in the baby’s hands and feet open up. Later, acrocyanosis can come back if the baby is cold (such as after a bath). This is normal, and will go away by itself.
Cyanosis can be a blue color around the mouth or face, or over the whole body. It happens when there isn’t enough oxygen traveling through the baby’s body. It means the baby is not getting enough oxygen. If you notice cyanosis, tell your baby's health care provider or a nurse right away.
Mottling occurs when the baby’s skin looks blue and blotchy. There may also be a bluish marbled or weblike pattern on the baby’s skin. The parts of the skin that are not blotchy may be very pale (this is called pallor). Mottling could be due to a congenital heart problem, poor blood circulation, or an infection. Tell your baby's health care provider or a nurse right away if you notice mottling.
Jaundice is a yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes. It usually starts in the face, then moves down to the chest, lower belly, and legs. It often happens because the body is breaking down red blood cells (a normal process after birth). The breakdown releases a yellow substance called bilirubin, which causes the yellow color. This substance is processed by the baby’s liver. It leaves the body through the urine or stool. Jaundice occurs in about half of all babies after birth, and often goes away by itself. But sometimes a baby’s liver can’t process bilirubin as quickly as needed. This is especially true of babies born early, or prematurely. Treatment may be needed to help the bilirubin break down and get rid of the yellow color. If your baby is jaundiced, alert your baby's health care provider or a nurse.
Other Skin Color Changes
Also tell your baby's health care provider or nurse if you notice:
Redness around the baby’s umbilical cord, catheter site, IV site, or circumcision site. The site could be infected.
Red spots (caused by broken blood vessels). This is often a sign of trauma or infection. It could also be due to a problem with the blood’s ability to clot.