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Spinal Cord Injury

The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerve fibers and nerve cells that extend from the base of the skull to below the waist. It is protected by the bones of your spine. The spinal cord nerves carry messages between the brain and the rest of the body. For that reason, injuries to the spinal cord are very serious. They may cause loss of feeling below the injured area (numbness) or loss of the ability to move (paralysis). Emergency treatment may help prevent permanent damage or may reduce the severity of the damage.

WARNING

Do not move a person with a spinal injury unless doing so is necessary to save his or her life. Call 911 and wait for help.

Back view of person showing spinal cord.

What causes spinal cord injuries

Car accidents, falls, sports injuries, and gunshot wounds cause most spinal cord damage. Electrical shock can also damage the spinal cord. Spinal cord injuries can happen to anyone, but men in their 30s and 40s are most often affected.

When to go to the emergency room (ER)

A spinal cord injury is an extreme medical emergency. For anyone with a possible injury to the back or neck, call 911 or emergency services right away. Do not try to move the person. Doing so can cause further injury.

When the paramedics arrive

The emergency technicians will place the injured person on a hard board and fit a hard cervical collar (neck brace) on his or her neck. They will ask basic questions, take a history, and do a physical exam. They might need to put an IV or intravenous catheter in his or her arm or hand. It is important to provide a current list of the medicines the injured person is taking.

What to expect in the ER

The healthcare providers and nurses caring for your loved one will act quickly. You can help by answering questions about the injury. Meanwhile, your loved one will be examined and his or her breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure will be checked. Oxygen may be given through a facemask. Or an endotracheal tube may be placed in the throat to aid breathing. To help determine the extent of the injury, one or more tests may be done:

  • X-rays can help reveal damage to the spine.

  • A computed tomography (CT) combines X-rays and computer scans. The result is a detailed picture of the spinal column.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses strong magnets and radio waves to provide clear images of the spine and nerves.

  • Bladder distention (caused from urine retention due to an injured spinal cord) will be evaluated with ultrasound or direct exam by the healthcare provider and, if found, a urinary catheter will be inserted.

 

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