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First Aid: Cuts and Scrapes

A break in the skin is an open door, inviting dirt and germs to enter your body and cause infection.

1. Control Bleeding

  • Apply direct pressure for at least 5 minutes.

  • For severe bleeding, raise the injury above the heart, if possible.

  • DON'T use a tourniquet, which prevents blood flow to the area and can damage healthy tissue.

2. Clean and Cover

  • Wash the scrape or cut with soap and water to kill germs and remove dirt and foreign objects.

  • Cover the wound with a clean gauze dressing to reduce the risk of infection and further injury. Keep the dressing in place with a gauze or cloth bandage.

  • DON'T tie or tape the bandage too tight.

Seek medical help if any of the following is true:

  • The wound covers a large area or is deep.

  • The injury is on the face or any other area where scarring is a concern.

  • The person needs protection against tetanus. This is a disease caused by bacteria that may enter any break in the skin and bring on a life-threatening illness called lockjaw. A tetanus booster (injection) may be needed if it's been more than 5 years since the last tetanus vaccination.

Call 911 immediately if the victim has any of the following:

  • Uncontrollable bleeding

  • Shock symptoms:

    • The skin is pale or clammy

    • The pulse is so light or races so fast that you can't count the beats.

    • The victim is confused or unable to concentrate, or stares blankly. Over time, the victim may even become unconscious.

  • A detached body part: Keep all fragments of the detached part dry. Put them in a plastic bag or other container first, and then put bag or container in ice or cold water to improve chances for reattachment. Send the parts to the hospital along with the victim.

While you wait for help:

  • Reassure the person.

  • Continue to control bleeding with direct pressure.

 

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