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When Your Child Has Leukemia

Since your child has been diagnosed with leukemia, you're likely feeling shocked and scared. But, support and treatment are available. Your child’s health care team will help you as you make important decisions regarding your child’s health.

What Is Leukemia?

Normal blood showing many disk-shaped red blood cells, a few spherical white blood cells, and several small platelets. Compared is blood with leukemia showing large amounts of leukemic blasts, some disk-shaped red blood cells, and very few platelets.

Leukemia is cancer of the bone marrow (the spongy inside of bones) and blood. The blood is made up of three main types of cells:

  • White blood cells fight infection.

  • Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, which gives a person energy.

  • Platelets help the blood to clot, which helps stop bleeding when a person is injured.

Leukemia affects the white blood cells. When a person is healthy, white blood cells form in the bone marrow. With leukemia, large numbers of abnormal white blood cells called leukemic blasts are produced. These blasts outlive and crowd out healthy cells. As time goes on, there are more blasts than healthy cells, so that the blood can’t do its job. This leads to problems, such as infections and bleeding. Anemia can also occur. This is a condition in which the blood doesn’t have enough red blood cells.

Who Gets Leukemia?

Leukemia is the most common type of childhood cancer. Children at any age can get leukemia, but those aged 2 to 7 are affected most often. Leukemia is not contagious, meaning the child can’t pass it to another person.

What Causes Leukemia?

Leukemia occurs when white blood cells grow abnormally (mutate). What causes this to happen is not fully known. Mutations in certain genes may affect the way your child’s cells grow. This gene mutation is random and couldn’t have been prevented. In rare cases, other factors, such as exposure to certain viruses, chemicals, or radiation, play a role. But most often, the cause of leukemia in children is unknown.

Types of Leukemia

There are many different types and subtypes of leukemia. Your child’s health care provider will talk to you about the type your child has. The three main types of leukemia that affect children include the following:

  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common form of leukemia in children. It accounts for about 80% of leukemia cases each year in the U.S. ALL occurs when the body makes abnormal lymphoid blasts (a type of abnormal white blood cell). ALL is a fast-growing cancer.

  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is the second most common form of leukemia in children. It accounts for about 20% of cases. AML occurs when the body makes abnormal myeloid blasts (a type of abnormal white blood cell). Children who have had chemotherapy in the past have an increased risk of AML. 

  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is rare in children. CML occurs because the body makes abnormal myeloid cells. With CML, the white blood cells are more mature, but there are too many of them. CML develops more slowly than AML.

What Are the Symptoms of Leukemia?

Some common symptoms of leukemia include fever, pale skin, tiredness (fatigue), and weakness. Your child may have experienced some or more of these symptoms.

How Is Leukemia Diagnosed?

The health care provider will examine your child. You will be asked about your child’s health history. Your child may also have one or more of the following:

  • Blood tests to take samples of blood and examine them under a microscope

  • Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy to take a sample of bone marrow from the hipbone

  • Lumbar puncture, also called spinal tap, to take a sample of the fluid that surrounds the spinal cord from the child’s lower back

How Is Leukemia Treated?

Chemotherapy (“chemo”) is the main treatment used for leukemia. It destroys cancer cells with powerful cancer-fighting medications. The kind of chemo medications your child receives depends on the type of leukemia your child has. Your child may receive a combination of chemo medications. They may be given by mouth, injection, or through a tube (IV) that’s usually put into a vein in the arm or chest. Your child’s health care provider can tell you more. Surgery is rarely part of the diagnosis or treatment. Radiation may be part of the treatment plan. 

Supportive Treatments

The goal of supportive treatments is to protect the child from infection, prevent discomfort, and bring the body’s blood counts to a healthy range. During your child’s treatment, he or she may be given antibiotics. These are medications that help prevent and fight infection. Antinausea and other medications may also be given. These help ease side effects caused by chemotherapy. Your child may receive a blood transfusion to restore the blood cells destroyed by treatment. Blood is taken from a donor and stored until the child is ready to receive it.

What Are the Long-Term Concerns?

Leukemia is often curable with treatment. But chemotherapy may cause some problems, such as damage to certain organs. Your child’s health will need to be monitored for life. This may include clinic visits, blood tests, and ultrasounds of the heart.

Call Your Child’s Health Care Provider 

Contact your child's doctor right away if your child has any of the following signs of infection:  

  • Chills

  • In an infant under 3 months old, a temperature of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher

  • In a child 3 to 36 months, a temperature of 102°F (39°C) or higher

  • In a child of any age who has a temperature of 103°F (39.4°C) or higher

  • A fever that lasts more than 24 hours in a child under 2 years, or for 3 days in a child 2 years or older.

  • Your child has had a seizure caused by the fever

  • Cough

  • Pain that can’t be controlled

  • Uncontrolled nausea or vomiting

  • Weakness

  • Diarrhea


Receiving a cancer diagnosis for your child is scary and confusing. It’s important to remember that you are not alone. Your child’s health care team will work with you and your child throughout your child’s illness and care. You may also wish to seek information and support for yourself. Doing so can help you cope with the changes cancer brings. Learning about and talking with others who also have a child with cancer may help you and your family cope. Some helpful resources include:

  • Leukemia Research Foundation

  • The Children’s Leukemia Research Association

  • The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society


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